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Κεντρική Σελίδα Άρθρα Παρουσιάσεις Towards an innovative classification - grouping of variables that formulate organizational culture

Towards an innovative classification - grouping of variables that formulate organizational culture

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Στα πλαίσια του 6ου διεθνούς συνεδρίου Συνέδριο για την Διοίκηση  του Τουρισμού και των Επιχειρήσεων Φιλοξενίας.  Οι Δρ. Θεόδωρος Σταυρινούδης και ο κύριος Χρήστος Κακαρούγκας παρουσίασαν το άρθρο: Towards an innovative classification - grouping of variables that formulate organizational culture.

Towards an innovative classification - grouping of variables that compose organizational culture

 

 

THEODOROS STAVRINOUDIS

Department of Business Administration, University of the Aegean, Chios, Greece

 

CHRISTOS KAKAROUGKAS

Department of Business Administration, University of the Aegean, Athens, Greece

 

 

Abstract

Through the thorough content analysis of the theories of: Handy (1976), Hofstede (1984), Cooke (1988), Goffee & Jones (1998), Deal & Kennedy (2000), Cameron & Quinn (2011), Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012), Yahyagil (2015) and Bavik (2016) regarding the types of organizational culture, the researchers concluded that the culture of an organization is determined by seventeen different groups of elements, which formed a seven-grade classification ladder. This classification ladder reflects the extent to which each group of elements is considered significant or not in determining organizational culture by each one of the above-mentioned authors/ researchers. Particularly, the grouped elements incorporated in this seven-grade classification ladder according to how many of the above authors/ researchers refer to this group of elements. It was found that the groups of elements named: change and power, hierarchy and structure are the most important in determining organizational culture, since they are reported by a total of eight out of nine authors/ researchers. While the group of elements named: vision and goal setting is considered the least important since it is only mentioned by two main authors.

 

 

1 INTRODUCTION

The literature review revealed numerous researchers and authors (Fletcher & Jones, 1992; Panayotopoulou, Bourantas & Papalexandris, 2003; Vilkinas & Cartan, 2006; Marlen, 2010; Chen, 2010; Cameron & Quinn, 2011; Yahyagil, 2015; Bavik, 2016 and others) who seek to classify the different types of organizational culture, using specific elements. The analysis of the different theories regarding the types of culture, in combination with the codification of the elements of organizational culture will lead to a deeper understanding of the concept of culture within an organization, as well as to the definition of specific elements that define organizational culture. Based on the above, on the near future a model will be created which will measure the role as well as the extent to which the reward systems affect the processes of change of organizational culture in five-star hotels.

 

2 METHODOLOGY

The present manuscript is divided into three sections. The first section presents in a concise manner the main categories of elements that constitute organizational culture in three levels (shell, mantle and core). In the second section the classification of the different components of organizational culture is performed, according to the findings of the first section as well as on the way those components are presented through the different theories regarding the types of organizational culture. This was conducted through the combination of similar or related concepts, in accordance with the spirit of: Handy (1976), Wilkins & Ouchi (1983), Hofstede (1984), Cooke (1988), Cooke & Szumal (1993), Bignardi (1996), Goffee & Jones (1998), Deal & Kennedy (2000), Harris & de Chernatony (2001), Sοrensen, (2002), Lewis  (2002), Melé (2003), Lok & Crawford  (2004), Denison, Lief & Ward (2004), Dowton, (2005), Balthazard, Cooke &  Potter (2006) Powell (2006), Marlen (2010),  Minkov &  Hofstede (2011), Cameron &  Quinn (2011), Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012), Bolman & Deal (2013), Klein, Wallis &  Cooke (2013) and Venaik et al (2013). In the third section, based on the classification of the components of organizational culture, the researchers proceeded to the ranking of the classified elements of organizational culture. This ranking was based on the extent that the nine most relevant authors/ researchers (Handy, 1976; Hofstede, 1984; Cooke, 1988; Goffee & Jones, 1998; Deal & Kennedy, 2000; Cameron & Quinn, 2011; Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia, 2012; Yahyagil, 2015 and Bavik 2016) refer or not in each separate component of organizational culture. For example, the concept of “change” as an element of organizational culture is referred by eight out of nine relevant authors/ researchers, while the concept of “risk/ innovation” is referred by five out of nine relevant authors/ researchers. It is important to mention that from the study and the classification of the international literature emerged that, many of the elements of organizational culture in their various manifestations are treated simultaneously as elements of the surface, the mantle and the core by the same relevant author/ researcher. In that case, the recording of the relevant author/ researcher is unique, i.e., the name of an author/ researcher cannot be counted twice in the definition of the final classification.

 

3 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

The theoretical approaches of Kilman, Saxton & Serpa (1985), Kotter & Heskett (2011), Johnson, Scholes & Whittington (2007) and Schein (2010) agree that the elements that constitute organizational culture are displayed at different levels of depth and degree of visibility to the observer within an organization. The authors, in the following figure, present the summary of the above findings.

Figure 1, The elements of organizational culture

Source: Stavrinoudis & Kakarougkas, 2016

 

4 CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, ACCORDING TO THE THEORIES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TYPES

Table 1 presents and classifies the different elements composing the organizational culture in accordance with the theoretical framework of: Handy (1976), Hofstede (1984), Cooke (1988), Goffee & Jones (1998), Deal & Kennedy (2000), Cameron & Quinn (2011), Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012), Yahyagil (2015) and Bavik (2016). The classification of the different elements of organizational culture will be completed with the development of Figure 1.

 

Table 1. Classification of the elements of the organizational culture

Organizational culture elements by:

 

Handy (1976):

Four Types of Culture

 

(Bignardi, 1996; Lewis, 2002; Bolman & Deal, 2013)

Core elements:

  1. Power
  2. Role
  3. Project

4.    Person

Mantle elements:

  1. Leading figure
  2. Position, hierarchy and the role of each employee
  3. Project implementation capability
  4. Individualism (strong/ weak)

Shell elements:

  1. Bureaucracy (small/ large)
  2. Rules (many/ few)
  3. Decisions (fast/ slow)
  4. Change (fast/ slow)
  5. Entrepreneurship

Hofstede (1984):

Culture Dimensions

 

(Powell, 2006; Minkov & Hofstede 2011; Venaik et al, 2013)

Key elements (Core & Mantle):

  1. Power Distance Index
  2. Individuality vs Collectivism
  3. Avoidance of uncertainty
  4. Masculinity vs Femininity
  5. Long-term orientation against short-term orientation
  6. Pleasure against Restraint

Shell elements:

  1. Power (acceptance or non-acceptance)
  2. Teamwork (acceptance or non-acceptance)
  3. Change (acceptance or non-acceptance)
  4. Distribution of roles (based on gender)
  5. Programming (short or long)
  6. Wishes/ impulses (control or not)

Cooke (1988):

Organizational Culture Inventory

 

(Cooke & Szumal, 1993; Balthazard, Cooke & Potter, 2006; Klein, Wallis & Cooke, 2013)

Core elements:

  1. Constructivism
  2. Passive/ Defensive
  3. Aggressive/ Defensive

Mantle elements:

  1. Result (Quality vs Quantity)
  2. Change (Adaptability against stagnation)
  3. Rules (Creativity vs Conformity)
  4. Teamwork (Cooperation vs Competition)
  5. Total/ Collectivism (System vs Unit)
  6. Bureaucracy (Small vs Large)
  7. Hierarchy (Small vs large)
  8. Strategy (Short term vs Long term)

Shell elements:

  1. Achievement
  2. Self-realization
  3. Humanitarian encouragement
  4. Acceptance
  5. Approval
  6. Conventionality
  7. Dependence
  8. Avoidance
  9. Opposition
  10. Power
  11. Competition
  12. Perfection

Goffee & Jones (1998):

Corporate Culture Framework

 

(Melé, 2003; Lok & Crawford, 2004; Dowton, 2005)

Core elements:

  1. Sociability (high vs low)
  2. Solidarity
  3. (high vs low)
  4. Community/ communal organization
  5. Fragmented organization
  6. Networked organization
  7. Mercenary culture

Mantle elements:

  1. Common goal
  2. Strong leadership
  3. Vision
  4. Teamwork (Cooperation vs Competition)
  5. Total/ Collectivism (System vs Unit)
  6. Rules (Many vs Few)
  7. Hierarchy (Small vs Large)
  8. Working environment (Loose/ friendly)
  9. Individualism (Strong or Weak)
  10. Programming (Clear priorities)
  11. Change (Adaptability vs Stagnation)
  12. Strategy (Short term vs Long term)

Shell elements:

  1. Organizational characteristics (Age and size)
  2. Long term planning
  3. Recruitment of suitable human/ units
  4. Communication
  5. Meals and social events
  6. Innovative ideas difficult to implement
  7. Frequent layoffs/ staff turnover
  8. Innovation

Deal & Kennedy (2000):

Corporate Tribes Culture Model

 

(Harris & de Chernatony, 2001; Sοrensen, 2002; Denison, Lief & Ward, 2004)

Core elements:

  1. Work hard/ play hard culture
  2. Masculinity culture
  3. Procedure culture
  4. Bet the company culture

Mantle elements:

  1. Teamwork (Cooperation vs Competition)
  2. Feedback from the social environment (Rapid vs Slow)
  3. Change (High vs Low resilience)
  4. Individualism (Strong or Weak)
  5. Teamwork (Cooperation vs Competition)
  6. Risk profits (Low vs High)

Shell elements:

  1. Production-quantity
  2. Working environment- pressure
  3. Change (Fast/ Slow)
  4. Bureaucracy (Small vs Large)
  5. Organizational characteristics (size)
  6. Planning (Short or Long term)
  7. Hierarchy (Small vs Large)

Cameron & Quinn (2011): Competing Values Framework

 

(Wilkins & Ouchi, 1983; Marlen, 2010)

Core elements:

  1. Culture type “clan”
  2. Culture type “target”
  3. Culture type “market”
  4. Culture type “hierarchy”

Mantle elements:

1. Dominant organizational features

2. Leader Style

3. Ties between members

4. Strategic focus

 

Forming:

First dimension:

1. Flexibility

2. Judgment

3. Dynamism

4. Stability

5. Class

6. Control

Second dimension:

 

  1. Internal- orientation integration, cooperation and unity
  2. External orientation- differentiation, competition and rivalry

Shell elements:

1. Exchange of information

2. Guidance from a leading figure

3. Security

4. Teamwork

(Cooperation vs Competition)

5. Talent Management

6. Empowerment

7. Interpersonal relations

8. Participatory decision making

9. Innovation

10.Creativity

11. Vision for the Future

12. Development

13. Entrepreneurship

14. External support

15. Acquisition of resources

16. Competitiveness

17. Change (Fast/ Slow)

18. Determination

19. Productivity

20. Clear target

21. Guidance through obstacles

22. Efficacy/ achievement

23. Routine and predictable procedures

24. Construction system

25. Documentation

26. Evaluation and assessment

27. Collection and control procedures

28. Stability

29. Improved efficiency and continuity

Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012): The Use of Corporate Culture Analysis on Mergers Acquisitions Process

Key elements (Core & Mantle)

Defining dimensions and perceptions:

  1. Approach concerning innovation in activity (pronounced degree or not)
  2. Approach concerning risk (pronounced degree or not)
  3. Horizontal relationships between members
  4. Vertical communication and contact between members
  5. Autonomy and decision making
  6. Approach to performance
  7. Approach to remuneration

 

Shell elements:

  1. Change (Adaptability against stagnation)
  2. Feedback from the social environment (Rapid vs Slow)
  3. Investments
  4. Acquisition of new equipment and technology
  5. Level of investment in research and development
  6. Management of cash balances
  7. Individualism (Strong or Weak)
  8. Teamwork (Cooperation vs Competition)
  9. Relationship between superiors and subordinates
  10. Organizational structure
  11. Roles of members
  12. Procedures
  13. Requirements of the organization towards its members
  14. Evaluation of the performance of the organization's members
  15. Reward systems

Yahyagil (2015): A Typology of Culture in Organizational Behavior

Key elements (Core, Mantle & Shell)

  • Perception of self in relation to others
  • Attitude towards nature
  • Attitude towards power
  • Attitude towards life
  • Social behavior
  • Attitude towards change
  • Particularism vs Universalism: Attitude towards diversity
  • Way of communication
  • Living vs Loving: Attitude towards life and human relationships
  • Procedural vs autonomous attitude to rules and procedures
  • Family type versus professional: Balance between family and professional life
  • Desolation versus gratification: Attitude towards pleasure and hedonism

Bavik (2016): Organizational Culture in the Hospitality Industry

Nine dimensions determining the organizational culture of a hotel at all levels (Core, Mantle & Shell)

  1. Level of cohesiveness: Attitude towards teamwork and collaboration between employees
  2. Ongoing-onboarding: The degree to which supervisors communicate effectively with their employees
  3. Work norms: Formal and informal rules
  4. Social motivation: The efforts made by the administration for the welfare of the employees
  5. Guest focus: Attitude towards guests and the satisfaction of their needs
  6. Human resource management practices
  7. Communication: Attitude towards the exchange of information
  8. Innovation: The extent to which members are encouraged or not to produce new ideas
  9. Job variety: Degree of diversity at work and pace of work

 

 

5 Classification of the components of the organizational culture

Subsequently based on the above, Table 2, Classification of elements that compose organizational culture was formed.

 

Table 2. Classification of elements that compose organizational culture

1st Rank: Change (Referred to 8 out of 9)

  • Fast/ Slow/ Flexibility S[1]- Handy (1976) S- Deal & Kennedy (2000) S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Acceptance or Denial S- M/ C Hofstede (1984)
  • Adaptability vs Stagnation Μ- Cooke (1988) Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998) Μ- Deal & Kennedy (2000) S- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Attitude towards change S- M/ C Yahyagil (2015)

1st Rank: Power/ Hierarchy/ Structure (Referred to 8 out of 9)

  • Acceptance or Lack of acceptance S- C Handy (1976) S- M/C Hofstede (1984) S- Cooke (1988) S- M/C Yahyagil (2015)
  • Size- Small vs Large Μ- Cooke (1988) Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998) S- Deal & Kennedy (2000)
  • Organizational structure S- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Gender based role allocation S- M/ C Hofstede (1984)
  • Role allocation S- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Role/ Hierarchy/ Position Μ/ C- Handy (1976)
  • Culture type “hierarchy” S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • System building/ Concentration and control of the procedures/ Order/ Control S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Approval S- Cooke (1988)
  • Procedural vs Autonomous S- M/C Yahyagil (2015)
  • Autonomy and decision making C- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)

2nd Rank: Individualism (Referred to 7 out of 9)

  • Strong or Weak C/M- Handy (1976) M- Goffee & Jones (1998) M- Deal & Kennedy (2000) S- Yaakov and Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Individualism vs Collectivism C/Μ- Hofstede (1984)
  • Perception of self against the others S- M/C Yahyagil (2015)
  • Fragmented organization C- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Opposition/ Competition/ Perfection S- Cooke (1988)

2nd Rank: Teamwork (Referred to 7 out of 9)

  • Acceptance or Lack of acceptance S- Hofstede (1984) S- Cooke (1988)
  • Cooperation vs Competition M- Cooke (1988) Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998) Μ- Deal & Kennedy (2000) S- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012) S- Cameron and Quinn (2011)
  • Collectivity (System vs Unit) Μ- Cooke (1988) Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Connections between members- integration, cooperation and unity Μ- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Community/ communal organization/ Solidarity (High vs Low) C- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Participatory decision making/ Security S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Dependence S- Cooke (1988)
  • Level of cohesiveness S- M/C Bavik (2016)

2nd Rank: Bureaucracy/ Rules (Referred to 7 out of 9)

  • Small/ Large S- Handy (1976) Μ- Cooke (1988) S- Deal & Kennedy (2000)
  • A lot/ Few S- Handy (1976) Μ-  Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Creativity vs Conformity Μ- Cooke (1988) S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Routine and predicted procedures/ Documentation S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Procedures S- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Procedure culture C- Deal & Kennedy (2000)
  • Conventionality/ Avoidance S- Cooke (1988)
  • Work norms S- M/ C Bavik (2016)

3rd Rank: Result/ Work execution (Referred to 6 out of 9)

  • Quality vs Quantity Μ- Cooke (1988)
  • Production- quantity S- Deal & Kennedy (2000) S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Approach to performance M/ C- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Requirements of the organization towards its members and Evaluation of the performance of the organization's members S- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Ability to execute works Μ- C Handy (1976)
  • Achievement S- Cooke (1988)
  • Appraisal and measurement/ Improvement of the effectiveness and the continuity/ Effectiveness/ Achievement S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Guest focus S- M/ C- Bavik (2016)

4th Rank: Risk/ Innovation (Referred to 5 out of 9)

  • Profits risk- Low vs High Μ- Deal & Kennedy (2000)
  • Attitude towards risk- Intensity or Lack of intensity S- M/ C Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Innovative ideas difficult to implement S- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Attitude towards innovation on the activity- Intensity or Lack of intensity S- M/ C- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012) S- Cameron & Quinn (2011) S- M/ C- Bavik (2016)

4th Rank: Sociability/ Extraversion (Referred to 5 out of 9)

  • Feedback from the social environment (fast vs slow) Μ- Deal & Kennedy (2000) S- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Sociability (High vs Low)
  • Meals and social events S- M Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • External support and External orientation-  differentiation, competitiveness and rivalry S/Μ- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Networked organization C- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Interpersonal relations
  • Competiveness S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Social behavior S- M/ C- Yahyagil (2015)

4th Rank: Communication (Referred to 5 out of 9)

S-  Goffee & Jones (1998) and S- M/ C- Bavik (2016)

  • Horizontal relations between the members
  • Vertical relations between the members

Μ/ C- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)

  • Relations between provosts and subordinates S- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012) and S- M/ C- Bavik (2016)
  • Information exchange S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Way of communication S- M/ C- Yahyagil (2015)

5th Rank: Human Resource Management (Referred to 4 out of 9)

  • Humanitarian encouragement, Self-actualization S- Cooke (1988)
  • Recruitment of the right people/ Frequent dismissal/ employees turnover S- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Talent management/ Empowerment S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Human resource management practices S- M/ C- Bavik (2016)

5th Rank: Work environment (Referred to 4 out of 9)

  • Relaxed/ friendly Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Work environment- pressure S- Deal & Kennedy (2000)
  • Way of life and human relations
  • Family type vs professional
  • Particularism vs Universalism
  • Attitude towards nature S- M/ C- Yahyagil (2015)
  • Job variety S- M/ C- Bavik (2016)

6th Rank: Leading figure (Referred to 3 out of 9)

Μ- Handy (1976)

  • Strong leadership Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Leader style/ Guidance by a leading figure S- Μ- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Determination, Guidance through obstacles/ Judgment/ Dynamism S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Decisions (Quick/ Slow) S- Handy (1976)

6th Rank: Programming (Referred to 3 out of 9)

  • Short- term or Long-term S- Μ/ C- Hofstede (1984) S- Deal & Kennedy (2000)
  • Clear priorities Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Long term programming S- Goffee & Jones (1998)

6th Rank: Strategy (Referred to 3 out of 9)

  • Short-term vs Long-term Μ- Cooke (1988) Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Strategic emphasis Μ- Cameron & Quinn (2011)

6th Rank: Entrepreneurship (Referred to 3 out of 9)

S- Handy (1976) S- Cameron & Quinn (2011)

Mercenary culture C- Goffee & Jones (1998)

6th Rank: Desires/ Impulses/ Rewards (Referred to 3 out of 9)

  • Control or lack of control S- Μ/ C- Hofstede (1984)
  • Attitude towards reward Μ/ C- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Reward systems S- Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia (2012)
  • Desolation versus gratification S- Μ/ C- Yahyagil (2015)

7th Rank: Vision/ Goal setting (Referred to 2 out of 9)

  • Vision for the future Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998) S - Cameron & Quinn (2011)
  • Common goal Μ- Goffee & Jones (1998)
  • Clear goal S/ C- Cameron & Quinn (2011)

Items who cannot be grouped and are not classified

Shell elements:

1. Age of the organization, Goffee & Jones (1998)

2. Development, Cameron & Quinn (2011)

Core elements:

1. Constructivism

2. Passive/ Defensive

3. Aggressive/ Defensive

Cooke (1988)

4 Work hard/ play hard culture

5. Masculinity culture

6. Bet the company culture

Deal & Kennedy (2000)

7. Culture type “clan”

8. Culture type “market”

Cameron & Quinn (2011)

S= Shell, M= Mantle and C= Core

  1. Conclusions- Practical and scientific implications

From the literature review and the study of Table 2, which was based on the content analysis of the theories of: Handy, 1976; Hofstede, 1984; Cooke, 1988; Goffee & Jones, 1998; Deal & Kennedy, 2000; Cameron & Quinn, 2011; Yaakov & Shlomo Yedidia, 2012; Yahyagil, 2015 and Bavik 2016 the following findings are arising. The culture of an organization is determined by seventeen groups of distinct elements (variables). Each group of elements can be integrated into a seven-grade rank according to the number of authors/ researchers mentioning this group of elements in their research- scientific papers. This seven-grade rank reflects the extent to which each group of elements is considered significant or not by each author/ researcher in the determination of the organizational culture. Resulting that the group of elements that are referred the most by the nine relevant authors are the most important.

For example, the group of elements called “change” is considered very important in shaping organizational culture since it is mentioned by eight out of nine relevant authors/ researchers. While the group of elements called “vision/ goal setting” is considered less important, it is mentioned by two out of nine relevant authors/ researchers. Specifically, the first rank is composed by the groups of elements named: change and power/ hierarchy/ structure. The second rank is composed by the groups of elements named: individualism, teamwork, and bureaucracy/ rules. The third rank is composed by the groups of elements named: outcome/ project performance. The fourth rank is composed by the groups of elements named: risk/ innovation, sociability/ extraversion and communication. The fifth rank is composed by the groups of elements named: human resources management and working environment. The sixth rank is composed by the groups of elements named:  leading figure, planning, strategy, entrepreneurship and desires/ impulses/ reward. The seventh rank is composed by the groups of elements named: vision/ goal setting.

The above findings lead to conclusions some of which were expected, while others were controversial. Moreover, the most important of these conclusions will be presented. The element of “change” in the sense of: degree of acceptance or not, flexibility of the organization and size of change (when it happens) is considered the most important element determining organizational culture. This finding was expected since Werkman (2009), Schein (2010) and Van de Ven & Sun (2011) support that modern organizations must show great adaptability to survive in a highly competitive environment. Further to the above conclusion, most relevant authors show a clear preference to the “formal/ revolutionary” direction of change (Stavrinoudis & Kakarougkas, 2016) since power, authority, hierarchy and organizational structure are fundamental elements of the specific direction, belonging to the first rank next to the element of “change”. Furthermore, the elements of teamwork and individualism holding the second position of this classification are mutually contradicting one another. Specifically, “teamwork” is in convergence with the concept of “change” as a component of organizational culture since it promotes and supports change (Marks & Mirvis, 2011; Weick, 2011 and Fortado & Fadil, 2012). In contrast individualism as a component of organizational culture constitutes the main obstacle to change (Macadam, 1996; Rashid, Sambasivan & Rahman, 2004 and Carnal, 2007). Finally, the most controversial finding is that the grouped element of “vision/ goal setting” occupies the last place of the ranking. Since, this finding come in contrast to the “hybrid” and “informal/ evolutionary” direction of change, who consider the existence of a positive vision for the future crucial for the successful implementation of cultural change (Stavrinoudis & Kakarougkas, 2016).

The scientific and practical value of this manuscript is based on the fact that it is adding an original and innovative classification- grouping of variables that formulate and define organizational culture. Furthermore, the conclusions of this manuscript can be a step for further study on the culture of organizations. Along the same lines, the authors intend, in the near future, to carry out a primary research on the change of organizational culture to luxury hotels throughout Greece.

 

 

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[1] S= Shell, M= Mantle and C= Core

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